NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes cover all the topics in a simplified and precise way. NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes are easy to understand and learn for exams. NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes are helpful for a quick revision of the chapter – Vital Villages and Thriving Towns.
NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes
|Iron Tools and Agriculture|
|>The use of Iron began about 3000 years in the subcontinent.|
>Iron was used for making tools and weapons.
>Use of Iron plough share was very useful in agriculture about 2500 years ago.
|Major Changes in Agriculture (About 2000 years ago)|
|(1) Transplantation of Paddy|
(2) Iron Ploughshare
(3) Irrigation by canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.
|Construction of Irrigation Works in Stages|
|1. Kings need money for armies, palaces, and forts.|
|2. They demand taxes from farmers.|
|3. Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.|
|4. This is possible with irrigation.|
|5. Kings provide money and plan irrigation works.|
|6. Labour is provided by the people.|
|7. Production increases.|
|8. Revenue also increases.|
|9. Farmers also benefit because crop production is more certain.|
Types of People Who Lived in Villages
(1) Landowners (Big Farmers)
(2) Ordinary Ploughmen (Small farmers)
(3) Landless Labourers (Kammakaras)
(4) Slaves (Dasas and Dasis)
Tamil Words for people lived in villages
Landowners – Vellalar
Ordinary Ploughmen – Ujhavar
Landless Labourers – Kadaisiyar
Slaves – Adimai
North Indian Villages
>Generally, the Largest landowner was also the village headman (Gram Bhojaka).
>The Post of Gram Bhojaka was hereditary.
>Other independent farmers were known as Grihapatis.
>Some of the earliest Tamil literature is known as Sangam Literature.
>Composed about 2300 years ago.
>Composed and compiled in Assemblies (Sangams) of poets in the city of Madurai.
Finding out about cities
(1) Jatak Stories
>Composed by ordinary people.
>Written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.
>Used to decorate railings, pillars, and gateways of buildings that were visited by people.
(3) Archaeological evidence
>Ringwells, Punch-marked coins, Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW), etc.
>Ringwells were the rows of pots, or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other. These ring wells might have been used as toilets, drainage, or garbage dumps.
>Punch Marked Coins were stamped with symbols using dies or punches. Hence, they are called punch-marked coins.
>NBPW (Northern Black Polished Ware) is a hard, wheel-made, metallic-looking ware with a shiny black surface.
(4) Account of Sailors or Travellers
>Description of ports or palaces visited by them.
Types of People Who lived in cities
(3) Craftspersons – Goldsmiths, Blacksmiths, Weavers, Basketmakers, Garland makers, Perfumers, etc.
|>Shrenis were the associations of craftspersons/merchants.|
>Shrenis of crafts persons provided training on procuring raw materials and distribution of the finished product.
>Shrenis of merchants organized the trade.
>Shrenis also served as a bank.