NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes cover all the important topics in a simplified and precise way. NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes are easy to understand and learn for exams.
#Major Landforms of the Earth
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes
The different features that make up the Earth’s surface are called landforms. Mountains, plateaus, plains, deserts, deltas, peninsulas, islands, etc. are some examples of landforms of the earth.
How different landforms are formed?
The landforms are the results of two processes:
(1) Internal Processes
– Movement of the tectonic rocks and lava inside the Earth’s surface.
– Lead to the formation of mountains and plateaus.
(2) External Processes
– Continuous erosion and deposition of the materials on the Earth’s surface.
– Lead to the formation of plains.
An elevated earth’s surface with a conical or rounded peak is called a mountain. Mountains have a broad base and a small summit.
>Elevation up to 600 m – Hills
>Elevation above 600 m – Mountains
Mountain Range – Arrangement of mountains in a line.
Mountain System – Series of parallel mountain ranges.
Glaciers – Frozen rivers of ice.
|Types of Mountains|
|1. Fold Mountains|
– Made of several layers of rocks and soils.
– Examples: The Himalayas, The Aravalis, The Alps, etc.
|2. Block Mountains|
– Formed when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
– Uplifted blocks are called Horsts.
– Lowered blocks are called Graben.
– Examples: The Rhine Valley, The Vosges Mountains, etc.
|3. Volcanic Mountains|
– Formed by volcanic activities.
– Examples: Mt. Fujiyama (Japan), Mt. Kilimanjaro (Africa)
Importance of Mountains
– Mountains are the storehouse of water. Many rivers originate from Glaciers.
– River valleys and terraces are useful in cultivation.
– Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna.
– Mountain forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter, rubber, gums, raisins, etc.
– Mountains have scenic beauty and adventurous sports for tourists.
A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is raised above the surroundings.
Examples: The Deccan Plateau, The Chhota Nagpur Plateau, The Tibetan Plateau, etc.
Importance of Plateaus
– Plateaus are rich in minerals.
– Beautiful waterfalls are found in plateaus.
– Fertile black soil is also found in plateau regions.
– Plateaus also have many beautiful places for tourists.
Plains are large stretches of flat land. Most of the plains are formed by rivers.
Example: The Northern plains of India.
Why are plains densely populated?
– Plains are very fertile and very good for agriculture.
– It is easy to construct roads, factories, houses, etc.
– Plains generally have a moderate climate.
Landforms and the People
People are changing their surroundings by damaging and destroying natural landforms. People are polluting rivers and land. People are damaging the environment for their greed and selfishness.
We must keep our environment clean and protected for our survival.